Aktualitātes fizisko personu maksātnespējas procesos

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Latvijas Kredītņēmēju asociācija (LAKRA) ir lielākā sabiedriskā organizācija, kura ir konsultējusi cilvēkus pirms fiziskas personas maksātnespējas procesa uzsākšanas, kā arī konsultē visā maksātnespējas procesa laikā.

Fizisko personu maksātnespējas procesos cilvēkiem ir daudz jautājumu gan uzsākot maksātnespējas procesu, gan arī pabeidzot, tāpēc šajā rakstā mēģināsim atbildēt uz visvairāk uzdotajiem jautājumiem.

Uzsākot maksātnespējas procesu visbiežāk uzdotais jautājums ir vai pirms maksātnespējas procesa uzsākšanas personai ir jābūt darba tiesiskajām attiecībām. Nē, darba tiesiskajām attiecībām nav jābūt, bet jābūt ir nodokļu maksātāja statusam (nodokļu maksātāja statusu personai piešķir tajā dienā, kad persona pirmo reizi noslēdz darba līgumu). Obligāts nosacījums ir administratora atlīdzības, valsts nodevas un kancelejas nodevas samaksa.

Tiesai pasludinot maksātnespējas procesu tiek iecelts maksātnespējas administrators (uz šo brīdi Latvijā darbojas 167 administratori, kurus tiesa ieceļ pēc Maksātnespējas kontroles dienesta ieteikuma). Administratoram ir 2 galvenās funkcijas – 1) kreditoru prasījumu pārbaude (Maksātnespējas likumā ir noteikts, ka kreditoriem savi kreditoru prasījumi ir jāpiesaka administratoram). 2) parādnieka mantas apzināšana. Administratora pienākums ir pārbaudīt informāciju par parādniekam piederošo mantu, bet šeit ir būtiski norādīt uz pēdējā laikā divām lietām, dēļ kurām aizvien vairāk tiek izbeigti maksātnespējas procesi – 1) parādnieki 3 gadus pirms maksātnespējas procesa pasludināšanas ir spēlējuši azartspēles, kas atspoguļojas parādnieka konta izrakstos; 2) parādnieki pēdējos 3 gados pirms maksātnespējas procesa pasludināšanas savos kontos ir kādam maksājuma mērķī norādījuši, ka mērķis ir “Aizdevums” vai arī “Aizdevuma atgriešana”, un šos aizdevumus parādnieks nevar pierādīt. Līdz ar to uzsākot maksātnespējas procesu parādniekam būtu jāpārskata savi konta pārskati un jāpārliecinās, vai šādi pārskaitījumi nav veikti.

Savukārt pabeidzot maksātnespējas procesu arvien biežāk maksātnespējas procesi tiek izbeigti un parādnieki netiek atbrīvoti no parādsaistībām, ja saistību dzēšanas procedūras laikā parādniekam nav bijis algots darbs (parādnieka ienākumu gūšanas avotam nav obligāti jābūt algotam darbam, parādnieks ienākumus var gūt arī kā, piemēram, pašnodarbināta persona). Tiesas arvien skurpulozāk arī skatās Latvijā esošos konta pārskatus, jo uz šo brīdi šāda informācija tiesām ir pieejama caur Valsts ieņēmumu dienesta datu bāzi, kur redzamas ir privātpersonu kontu reģistrs Latvijas teritorijā atvērtajiem kontiem. Tāpat arī tiesu praksē sāk nostiprināties atziņa, ka parādniekiem ir jāveic maksājumi kreditoriem no skaidras naudas iemaksām (izņemot gadījumus, kad parādnieks algu saņem skaidrā naudā) un no maksājumiem, kas saņemti no trešajām personām.

Un protams, parādniekiem jāseko līdzi saistību dzēšanas plāna izpildei, un palielinoties valstī minimālajai algai jāveic maksājumi kreditoriem saskaņā ar valstī noteikto minimālo algu.

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